A kampong (spelled kampung in Malay and Indonesian) is a village in Malaysia, Brunei, Indonesia, Singapore and Cambodia. The term applies to traditional villages, especially of indigenous peoples, and has also used to refer to urban slum areas and enclosed developments within towns and cities. The traditional kampong village designs and architecture have been targeted for reform by urbanists and modernists and have also been adapted by contemporary architects for various projects. Traditional kampongs are also a tourist attraction.
Malay kampongs are found in Singapore, but there are few kampongs remaining, mostly on islands surrounding Singapore, such as Pulau Ubin. In the past, there were many kampongs in Singapore but development and urbanization have replaced them.
Extending from a MOE Tier 2 research collaboration between Chinese Studies and Geography where we map out temples in Singapore (visit demo) and their respective relocations across the years, one research area that interests us was to look into the relation or impact that urban development had on the pattern of relocations of temples across the years.
As a first step, we need to map out the historical locations of kampongs (i.e. villages) in Singapore, where we believe most temples had their humble beginnings.
Under the project, we engaged a team of passionate part-time research assistants consisting of both Bachelor, Master and PhD candidates to assist with visual inspection and locating of all kampongs that are labelled on a set of historical maps of Singapore ranging from 1846 to 2010.
kampongs estimated in total
step data verification process
years worth of maps
We relied on the historical paper maps, that were always georeferenced through the effort from the GIS-Strategic Initiative of Department of Geography, as a source of both the name and location of historical kampongs in Singapore. As this mapping effort requires massive amount of labour to visually inspect the historical maps for kampongs, we decided to put together a basic web-GIS app that allows our team of student research assistants to easily collaborative environment.
Our mapping process is currently on-going, view the interactive map below to see the number of kampongs that have been currently mapped out by our team of research assistants.
Did you know that most of the homes in kampongs were made
from attap palm in the 1960s?
Did you know that wood (and some cement) started replacing
attap palm for homes in kampongs in the 1970s?
Did you know Kampong Lorong Buangkok is the last remaining
kampong on mainland Singapore today?
Did you know that Pulau Ubin still has around 70 kampung-style
houses as of 2015?
This nature of this research project is an inter-disciplinary and collaborative one involving members across different departments and entities. The following is a preliminary list of members who participated in the making of this demo at this early stage. Full details of the team will be updated here soon!
Research interests include Daoist studies, Chinese popular religion, popular culture and Chinese literature
Research interests include Biogeography, Landscape ecology, Spatial epidemiology, GIS and remote sensing applications
Research interests include GIScience, Data modeling, Ontology and Spatial epidemiology
Research interests include Buddhist Studies
Research interests include geospatial cyberinfrastructure, high-performance computing (HPC), Internet GIS (Web GIS and Mobile GIS), simulation modeling (cellular automata and agent-based modeling), and spatial demography
Research interests include the Philosophy of Buddhism, Chinese folk religion, Singapore Chinese temples, Chinese Culture, and the Chinese in Singapore and Malaysia
Due to the laborious nature of this exercise, we are deeply grateful to the following passionate part-time research assistants who painstakingly helped to visually inspect every historical map in our collection to locate every kampong that can be seen. Without their help, this effort will not be possible!
(Note: This page will be updated once we are done collating profile info of our RAs.)
To make the mapping process easy, we put together a web-based GIS tool with a simple and focused UI to allow our team of part-time research assistants to work using their own laptops/devices at their own convenience.
The latest result of their mapping effort can be viewed from the map above.
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